BS pdf - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. Abandonment 3 Pipeline design flowchart 3. Section 2. Design. BRITISH STANDARD. BS Incorporating Amendment No. 1. Code of practice for. Pipelines — Part 2: Pipelines on land: design, construction and. PD , Code of practice for pipelines — Part 2: Subsea pipelines. For example, BS EN excludes pipeline systems for the.
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British Standard A single copy of this British Standard is licensed to Licensed Copy: Akin Koksal, Bechtel Ltd, 29 March , Uncontrolled. BS PD Pipeline systems – Part 2: Subsea pipelines – Code of practice. Secure PDF. Single User. $ Print. In Stock. Need it fast? Ask for rush. of you have this Standard: BS Part-1 (General Pipeline Onshore) and BS Part 2, BS Ductile Iron pdf MB.
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Pipeline systems — Part 2: Subsea pipelines — Code of practice. Includes all amendments and changes through Amendment 1, November Detail Summary View all details. Price USD.
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Secure PDF. Exceptions are pipeline diameters which are also given in inches and the unit used for pressure which is the bar. The choice of steel, components, coating and lining if necessary will depend on the service conditions and the particular environment. The major application of this Section will be the transmission of substances for which low alloy carbon steel pipe will meet the service conditions required. Environmental factors are described in BS In the event of pipelines being required to operate outside this range reference should be made to specifications such as ANSI B See 2.
The provisions of this Section apply to pipelines conveying category B, category C and category D substances see 2. This Section does not necessarily apply to other piping systems within such facilities and for which other British Standards are available.
Figure 1 illustrates the extent of pipeline systems to which this Section applies. These procedures should be used in the application of the whole of this Section including design, procurement, construction and testing. NOTE Other recognized quality assurance codes may be specified and in this case section 7 should be referred to.
Appendix A of BS In addition, the following records should be maintained by the promoter. The use of computerized records systems should be considered for these records. The flowchart does not attempt to show all the various pathways required to arrive at the chosen design. The numbers shown in the flow chart boxes refer to the sections and clauses within this Section. The Section is not intended to be a design handbook and although it contains certain recommendations it does not replace the need for appropriate experience and competent engineering judgement.
Fundamental principles should be followed throughout and materials and practices not recommended in the Section may be used providing they can be shown to achieve comparable safety standards. The design and location of a pipeline should take account of the hazard potential of the substance to be conveyed, the proximity of the pipeline to normally occupied buildings and the density of population in the areas through which the pipeline passes.
Potential causes of pipeline damage which may lead to subsequent failure include the activities of third parties carrying out agricultural or construction works along the route of the pipeline such as those associated with deep working of the land, drainage, installation and maintenance of underground services and general road works. Consideration should be given at the design stage to any requirement to provide suitable and safe access for in-service inspection.
The safety and reliability of a pipeline system may be improved by the application of quality assurance procedures in design. In this respect reference should be made to section 7. Typical examples of extra protection are: If the category is not clear the more hazardous should be assumed. Mixtures of gases and liquids should be placed in relation to their composition. Other gases or liquids not specifically included by name should be placed in the category containing substances most closely similar in hazard potential to those quoted see 2.
Category A Typically water based fluids. Category B Flammable and toxic substances which are liquids at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure conditions. Typical examples would be oil, petroleum products, toxic liquids and other liquids which could have an adverse effect on the environment if released.
Category C Non-flammable substances which are gases at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure conditions. Typical examples would be oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, argon and air. Category D Flammable and toxic substances which are gases at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure conditions and are conveyed as gases or liquids.
Typical examples would be hydrogen, methane, ethane, ethylene, propane, butane, liquefied petroleum gas, natural gas liquids, ammonia, and chlorine.
The rupture of a pipeline conveying a liquid will have a much lower blast effect owing to the relatively incompressible nature of liquids.
Gases conveyed as liquids will have an intermediate effect. The characteristics of some hazardous substances commonly conveyed in pipelines have been included in 2. Toxic liquids will behave in a similar manner. Crude oil and petroleum products radiate a high level of heat on ignition. Oxygen readily mixes with air, supports combustion and will increase the flammability of combustible materials in the immediate vicinity of a release. Hydrogen is flammable, lighter than air and easily ignited.
When ignited it radiates heat and may produce a vapour cloud explosion. Methane is flammable, lighter than air, radiates heat on ignition and can form a vapour cloud which may migrate from the point of rupture.
Ethane is flammable, slightly heavier than air, radiates a high heat on ignition and can form a vapour cloud at low level which may migrate from the point of rupture. Ethylene radiates a high heat on ignition and can form a vapour cloud which may migrate from the point of rupture. Ethylene has the lowest critical pressure of commonly transported gases, can decompose exothermally and is capable of detonation. Natural gas liquid NGL will on release behave in relation to its constituents, ethane, propane and butane etc.
NGL is flammable, will radiate a high heat on ignition and form a vapour cloud at ground level which may migrate from the point of rupture. Liquefied petroleum gas LPG is flammable and, although conveyed in pipelines as liquid or gas, will be released as a heavier than air gas propane and butanes which can migrate some distance at ground level.
LPG will radiate a high level of heat on ignition. The behaviour of gases and associated liquids in two phase flow pipelines will depend upon their particular composition on release. Ammonia is flammable and toxic, and will be released as a heavier than air gas which can migrate some distance at ground level. Ammonia will radiate heat if ignited; the gas has a toxic effect. The evaluation should include the following: The risk analysis should culminate in an evaluation of risk along the pipeline.
The location of category B substance pipelines need not be classified in relation to population density but may require extra protection or be subject to a safety evaluation. The measurement of population density is described in 2. Additional factors should be considered when classifying pipeline location such as future development, topographical features in the area through which the pipeline passes and watercourses crossed or adjacent to the pipeline leading to areas of higher population density.
In these and other comparable cases a more stringent classification of location may be considered where the effects of a pipeline failure could be experienced by population centres outside the immediate vicinity of the pipeline. The minimum distance in metres for routing purposes between a pipeline having a design factor see 2. Minimum distance where The proximity distances for pipelines conveying category C substances at pressures less than 35 bar should be the same as those for the substance calculated at 35 bar.
Table 2 — Substance factors Substances not specifically listed by name in Table 2 should be given the substance factor most closely similar in hazard potential to those quoted.
For pipelines conveying category C substances and having a design factor not exceeding 0. For pipelines conveying category D substances and having a design factor not exceeding 0. The minimum distances should finally be determined by taking into account factors including the hazardous nature of the particular substance being conveyed and the pipeline inventory in conjunction with a safety evaluation of the pipeline see 2.
Class 1 location Areas with a population density less than 2. Class 2 location Areas with a population density greater than or equal to 2. Class 3 location Central areas of towns and cities with a high population and building density, multi-storey buildings, dense traffic and numerous underground services. D is the pipe outside diameter in mm ; P is the maximum operating pressure in bar ; Q is the substance factor see Table 2.
Substance Substance factor, Q Ammonia 2. Measurement of population density should be based on a survey of normally occupied buildings including houses, schools, hospitals, public halls, and industrial areas. The population should be estimated following consultation with local authorities to assess the population level in the area concerned.
The point at which the required degree of protection changes adjacent to the boundary between class 1 and class 2 areas should be one-half of the appropriate strip width from the boundary of the higher density area.
Occasionally the method of population density assessment may lead to an anomaly in classification of location such as may occur in a ribbon development area or for pipelines conveying toxic substances. In such cases consideration should be given to a more stringent classification than would be indicated by population density alone. In areas of high population density extensively developed with residential properties, schools, shops, public buildings and industrial areas consideration should be given to providing extra protection to the pipeline as described in 2.
However the design factor may be raised to a maximum of 0. Pipelines designed to convey category D substances in class 2 locations should have either a nominal wall thickness of 9. It is essential that pipelines designed to operate in class 3 locations be limited to a maximum operating pressure of 7 bar. For category C and category D substance pipelines, roads should be classified as major roads or minor roads for allocation of design factor and wall thickness.
Major roads would normally include motorways and trunk roads. Minor roads would normally include all other public roads. Private roads or tracks should only be classified as minor roads if there is reason to believe that they may be used regularly by heavy traffic. Assessments of traffic densities should be carried out by consultation with the Department of Transport and local highway authorities concerned.
Figure 2 — Minimum distance from normally occupied buildings for methane a category D substance L i c e n s e d C o p y: Particular care should be exercised in the consideration of ground conditions and temporary works design. The minimum distance between the road surface and the top of the pipe or sleeve should be 1. Consideration should be given to the provision of impact protection at open-cut crossings of major roads. However, impact protection should be provided at open cut crossings of major roads.
However, the design factor may be raised to a maximum of 0. Pipeline crossings of major roads should be carried out using either: For major roads the design factor, wall thickness or impact protection requirements should extend for a distance equal to the minimum distance shown in Figure 2 for methane or the final minimum distance see 2. Pipeline crossings of minor roads should be carried out using either: For minor roads the design factor, wall thickness or impact protection requirements should extend between highway boundaries on each side of the crossing.
Major rail routes would normally include inter city and high density commuter routes. Minor rail routes would normally include all others. The minimum distance between the top of the pipe or sleeve and the top of the rail should be 1. Assessment of traffic densities and crossing requirements should be carried out by consultation with the appropriate railway authority.
See 6. Where it is necessary to utilize pipe bridges these should be designed in accordance with good structural engineering practice and with a design factor in accordance with 2. Pipe bridge design should consider thermal and structural stresses, pipe carrier stresses and foundation loadings.
Sufficient headroom should be provided to avoid possible damage from the movement of traffic or shipping beneath the pipe bridge. Account should be taken of accessibility requirements for maintenance and of restrictions on access to the general public. Potential cathodic protection interference between the pipeline and bridge supporting structure should be considered. Where particular circumstances indicate the need for a sleeved crossing, reference should be made to section 7.
Impact protection may take the form of increased cover, concrete surround, concrete slab over or similar construction. Unless otherwise recommended in this standard impact protection should extend between the highway or railway boundary at each side of the crossing.
Where pipelines are unavoidably located in such areas, appropriate protective measures should be taken to counter any potential harm to the pipeline. These may include increased wall thickness, ground stabilization, erosion prevention, installation of anchors, provision of negative buoyancy, etc. For the depth of cover in other areas reference should be made to BS Cathodic protection systems should be designed in accordance with BS The spacing of section isolating valves should reflect the conclusions of any safety evaluation prepared for the pipeline and should preferably be installed below ground.
In the locating of section isolating valves account should be taken of topography, ease of access for operation and maintenance, protection from vandalism and proximity to normally occupied buildings.
This distance may be increased if it can be justified to a statutory authority as part of a safety evaluation of the pipeline. Consideration should be given to similar installation on pipelines conveying category C and non-toxic category B substances. Important factors to be considered include: The method chosen for leak detection should be appropriate and effective for the substance to be conveyed.
Typical leak detection methods include continuous mass balance of pipeline contents, detection of pressure waves, monitoring of rate of change of pressure and flow, and dynamic modelling by computer. The leak detection system should be part of the overall pipeline management system which should incorporate route inspection in accordance with BS Pipeline systems should be designed for the most severe coincident conditions of pressure, temperature and loading which may occur during normal operation or testing.
The maximum operating pressure is the sum of the static head pressure, the pressure required to overcome friction losses and any required back pressure. The internal design pressure used in design calculations may be modified by taking into account the difference in pressure between the inside and outside of any pipeline component.
Allowances for pressure rises above maximum operating pressure due to surges are described in 2. See Figure 3 for a review of pressure definitions. Where pipelines are connected to wells, consideration should be given to well kill pressure in the assessment of maximum operating pressure. It is essential that the MAOP does not exceed the internal design pressure. NOTE Consideration should be given to possible fault conditions which may give rise to low temperature.
Account should be taken of stresses induced as a result of restriction of free thermal movement owing to restraints. Figure 3 — Pressure definitions L i c e n s e d C o p y: Surge pressure calculations should be carried out to assess the maximum positive and negative surge pressures in the piping system. Account should be taken of surge pressures produced within the pipeline affecting piping systems outside the scope of this standard such as upstream of pumping stations or downstream of pipeline terminals.
See 5. A nominal pipe wall thickness should be selected to give adequate performance in construction handling and welding. For treatment of corrosion allowance see 2.
Flanges exceeding or departing from standard dimensions may be used provided they are designed with reference to BS Gaskets should be designed in accordance with BS Special gaskets may be used providing they are suitable for the pressures, temperatures and substances to which they may be subjected. Bolts or studbolts should extend completely through the nuts.
Valves having pressure-containing components such as body, bonnet, cover, end flange or gate manufactured in cast iron or ductile iron should not be used in pipeline systems covered by this Section. Special steel and non-ferrous valves may be used providing their design, including material strength, structural features, tightness and test procedures, is in accordance with the standards listed in section 3.
Consideration should be given to the installation of valves to a fire safe design in safety critical areas.
Where welded or forged branch connections are installed in pipelines designed for pigging, special branch connections should be used to ensure that the pig is not damaged whilst passing the connection, allowed to enter the branch or become stuck. All bends should be free from buckling, cracks or other evidence of mechanical damage. The nominal internal diameter of a bend should not be reduced by ovality by more than 2. Sufficient tangent lengths should be left at each end of bends to ensure good alignment.
Pipes bent cold should not contain a butt within the bent section. The wall thickness of finished bends, taking into account wall thinning at the outer radius, should be not less than the design thickness, t, shown in 2. An indication of wall thinning as a percentage may be given by the following empirical formula: This formula does not take into account other factors which depend on the bending process and reference should be made to the bend manufacturer where wall thinning is critical.
Reference should be made to 3. Mitred, wrinkle or gussetted bends should not be used in pipeline systems covered by this Section. Account should be taken of the use of cleaning, scraper and internal inspection devices when specifying the radius of bends intended for installation in pipelines.
Factory-made bends and factory-made wrought steel elbows may be used provided they comply with 2. End closures for components including pig traps, filters and prover loops should incorporate an interlocked vent to prevent the closure being opened before the release of pressure from the component. The design should ensure that the hinges and locking mechanism are sufficiently robust to withstand repeated use.
Flat, ellipsoidal, spherical and conical closure heads should be designed in accordance with BS The installation of threaded joints including compression fittings should be discouraged on buried piping systems. The design of special joints should take account of vibration, fatigue, cyclic conditions, low temperature, thermal expansion and construction installation stresses.
Before installation into the pipeline, the joint should pass a hydrostatic pressure test without end restraint at a pressure equal to the pipeline test pressure. However, reference may be made to BS for fabrication, and for design of details such as nozzle reinforcement, saddle supports and other items not classed as standard pipeline sections. Welding and inspection requirements should be supplemented by BS Pig traps should be tested at pressures not less than those required for the associated pipeline.
The design pressure should be equal to the internal design pressure of the pipeline system see 2. Consideration should be given to thermal relief, pipeline and process-related relief requirements and measures to reduce fire exposure.
The design should take account of static loading, transients during slug arrival, anchor and support requirements and the provision of sample points to evaluate the build up of solids. When carrying out flexibility and stress analysis calculations account should be taken of momentum and dynamic effects.
For above-ground multipipe-type slug catchers the pressure design should be in accordance with ANSI B In both cases reference should be made to BS The axial compressive force required to restrain a pipeline should be calculated as follows. Thin wall Thick wall where 2. The allowable hoop stress is given in 2. The hoop stress should be calculated by using either the thin wall or thick wall design equations. NOTE Additional forces may need to be considered.
This gives the maximum hoop stress encountered at the inside face of the pipe wall. Expansion calculations should be carried out on buried and above-ground pipelines where flexibility is in doubt and where significant temperature changes are expected such as occur in heated oil or refrigerated pipelines.
Thermal expansion or contraction of buried pipelines may cause movement at termination points, changes in direction or changes in size. The necessary flexibility should be provided if such movements are unrestrained, by anchors. Account should be taken of buckling forces which may be imposed on pipelines laid in active mining areas.
The effect of restraints, such as support friction, branch connections and lateral interferences should be considered. Calculations should take into account stress intensification factors found to be present in components other than plain straight pipe.
Account may be taken of any extra flexibility of such components. In the absence of more directly applicable data, the flexibility factors and stress intensification factors shown in BS may be used. Above ground pipelines and piping may be restrained by anchors so that the longitudinal movement owing to thermal and pressure changes is absorbed by direct axial compression or tension of the pipe.
In such cases expansion calculations should be carried out taking into account all the forces acting on the pipeline. Consideration should be given to elastic instability due to longitudinal compressive forces. Where movement is unrestrained, flexibility should be provided by means of loops, offsets or special fittings. The temperature range used in the calculation of reactions on anchors and equipment should be the difference between the maximum or minimum metal temperatures and the installation temperature, whichever gives the greater reaction.
A pipeline should be considered totally restrained when axial movement and bending resulting from temperature or pressure change is totally prevented. Thin wall Thick wall where For unrestrained sections of a pipeline, the longitudinal tensile stress resulting from the combined effects of temperature and pressure change alone should be calculated as follows. The equivalent stress should be calculated using the von Mises equivalent stress criteria as follows: S h is the hoop stress calculated in 2.
NOTE The von Mises equivalent stress has been derived from the full equation by assuming that the third principal stress is negligible. If the pipe history is unknown, the weld joint factor e should not exceed 0. Where internal corrosion, external corrosion or erosion is expected, a corrosion allowance may be made following an appropriate study, taking into account the type of corrosion expected and the required life of the pipeline. No external corrosion allowance is required if both an anti-corrosion coating system and a cathodic protection system are installed.
Where a corrosion allowance is applied it should be added to the value of the design thickness see 2. Construction 21 Transport, handling and storage 8 22 Trenching 8 23 Pipe inspection, repair and cutting 9 24 Laying, jointing and anchoring 9 25 Backfilling 11 Subsection 5. Cleaning, testing and commissioning 26 Cleaning 13 27 Testing 13 28 Commissioning 14 Subsection 6.
Bs 8010 part 1 pdf
Part 1 which supersedes CP contains general information which is relevant to a variety of pipelines and a variety of transported materials. It deals with those aspects of pipeline development that affect the owner and occupier of land through which the pipeline passes. Part 2 is to be divided into several Sections which are to be published as separate documents as follows: — Section 2.
Each Section will contain information relevant to the design, construction and installation of a pipeline in the particular material.
These Sections will supersede Parts 2, 3, 4 and 5 of CP Part 3 will include information relevant to the design, installation and commissioning of subsea pipelines in steel and other materials. Part 4 will contain advice on the operation and maintenance of pipelines, with Sections related to the conveyed material. This Section 2. It deals with pressure and non-pressure pipelines constructed using glass reinforced thermosetting plastics and in particular is based on pipes and fittings that comply with BS and BS , as applicable.
For supporting information not incorporated in published standards, reference is made to a bibliography provided as Appendix C. It has been assumed in the drafting of this British Standard that the execution of its provisions is entrusted to appropriately qualified and experienced people.
A British Standard does not purport to include all the necessary provisions of a contract.
Users of British Standards are responsible for their correct application. Compliance with a British Standard does not of itself confer immunity from legal obligations.The prediction of the thermal radiation effects is required to be summed through the event. It deals with pressure and non-pressure pipelines constructed using glass reinforced thermosetting plastics and in particular is based on pipes and fittings that comply with BS and BS , as applicable.
BS gives details All material used in valves should be compatible of the bolt hole diameters for such flanges. BS PD D This publication does not purport to include all the necessary provisions of a: A variety of resin systems and reinforcement The direction of rotation should be the same for any structures may be used to make GRP pipes and one pipeline installation. International Organization for Standardization.
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