I. DRAWING FROM NATURE m PUBLIC [email protected] n. HrNTs 0N GENERAL STUDY. 1u. USE 0F WATER COLOURS. 1v. FIVE MINUTES' SOLITUDE WITH A . (This is true, but is intended as abuse so that the hearer will be more sympathetic . invest it with a significance and Art of Drawing the Human Body. - Drawing Nature - Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free.
|Language:||English, Indonesian, German|
|Genre:||Academic & Education|
|ePub File Size:||21.41 MB|
|PDF File Size:||17.62 MB|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Registration Required]|
its sphere in the class-room, the latter amidst the beauties of Nature, or in the studio. The information here presented, and the practice recommended, will enable. Download the Book:Drawing Nature For The Absolute Beginner: A Clear & Easy Guide To Drawing Landscapes & Nature PDF For Free, Preface. destination. When drawing from nature our aims should be to identify drawing techniques that are a visual parallel to the subject we have chosen to draw. In the .
There is more depth and realism, and the use of new viewpoints is possible. Gender And Colour Preferences Unsurprisingly, there are some differences between how and what girls and boys draw. Girls usually draw rounded shapes, including flowers, hearts, while angles, boxes, and straighter lines are characteristics of boys, along with cars, buses, etc.
1995 - Drawing Nature
In addition, some researchers have reported that girls tend to use more colours per drawing than boys do, with a preference for warmer colours i. The choice of colour apparently can be significant : Black and purple suggest dominance, and can be favoured by a child who is relatively demanding.
Blue is popular with children who have a caring nature and enjoy company. Pink shows a need for love and appreciation and is favoured by girls Green is the colour of those who like to be different, like space, and are artistic and intelligent. Yellow also demonstrates intelligence and a sunny nature.
Position of the Drawing on the Page When it comes to positioning on the page, apparently the left side of the page is traditionally associated with the past and with nurturing.
It is also associated with mothers.
The right side relates to an interest in the future, and a need to communicate. This side is associated with fathers. A child who places a drawing of a good size prominently on the page is considered to be well-balanced and secure, while in contrast, small figures drawn at or near the lower edge of the paper, or in a corner, express feelings of inadequacy or insecurity. However, there are some points that researchers have found that might display what a child is really feeling.
Detailed, careful drawings may reveal a child who feels the need to try very hard. Bold strokes, especially if close together, can be a sign of stress, strong feelings, determination or anger, while softer marks suggest a gentler nature. The quality of line can also be significant — a figure drawn with light, wavering, broken lines, reveals a hesitant, insecure child who appears to think as he goes along. By contrast the bold, continual, freely drawn line is expressive of self-confidence, and a feeling of security.
When drawing figures, the size, and the relative size of the figures drawn is considered to be significant, with more important or dominant figures being drawn larger. The absence of arms is sometimes interpreted as indicating timidity, a sign of non-aggressive children, whereas exaggerating the size of the hands is seen as symbolic of aggressive tendencies if the figure is a self-portrait.
Likewise, tiny feet are seen as a sign of insecurity — literally an unstable foundation. Impulsive child: Big figures, no necks, and asymmetry of limbs. However, try to encourage this creative activity as well.
The images describe the movement of chromosomes blue and kinetochores which attach the spindle microtubules to the chromosomes; orange during the different phases of mitosis: mitosis starts at the bottom of the drawing and ends at the top. The generation of new microtubules by the centrosomes is shown in red, with chromosome-dependent microtubule generation in purple and augmin-dependent microtubule generation in green. A Mitosis in a Drosophila embryo over time.
As mitosis starts, there is a large burst of microtubule nucleation from the centrosomes, roughly coincidental with the condensation of chromosomes. A full mitotic spindle forms, supplemented by augmin-dependent microtubules.
A very short spindle assembly checkpoint is followed by the segregation of chromosomes, driven by microtubule depolymerization. B Mitosis in a human tissue culture cell. The same principles as A apply. The extended 'body' reflects the increased time needed to align chromosomes 23 pairs instead of the four pairs in Drosophila and the increased time between metaphase and anaphase about 20 minutes in humans, compared with about 1 minute in Drosophila.
Chromatin-dependent microtubule generation is visible due to the extended time required for chromosome alignment. C Abnormal mitosis in a human cell lacking the spindle assembly checkpoint shown by the truncated shape , which results in abnormal chromosome segregation and the generation of nuclei of different sizes. D Abnormal mitosis in a human cell with a defective spindle stability, which causes ongoing spindle rebooting and the production of an instable protein mass. E Mitosis in a plant cell.
With centrosomes absent in higher plant cells, the formation of microtubules is facilitated predominantly by chromatin and by the nuclear envelope, amplified by augmin-dependent microtubules. F Mitosis in fission yeast demonstrating a closed mitosis and a bar-like mitotic spindle, generated purely from spindle pole body-nucleated microtubules.
Both spindle formation and anaphase are intuited as 'ratchet-like' and measured, rather than explosive. Exploring dynamics within cell division At the time of drawing the scores described in Figure 4 , it was unclear what the overall sculpted shape related to, besides somehow including a dynamic perspective on the organisation of microtubules.
A series of conversations among the whole team helped to define the overall changing shape of the image as being related to the energy inherent in the microtubule system s over time. This key reflection allowed the same principle to be applied to the chromosomes.
Energy is required to both condense chromosomes at the start of mitosis and to decondense them following segregation, whilst additional input is needed to nucleate microtubules around the chromosomes and, through kinetochores, to assist their alignment. The score was then extended to encompass the entire process of cell division by incorporating the cell cortex i.
Further, unconventional colours e. Figure 5 Download asset Open asset A new dynamic representation of cell division. Cell division, beginning at the transition from the G2 phase of the cell cycle to mitosis bottom , and finishing after cytokinesis, when the cells divide top. Just before mitosis starts, the cell actively rounds up. Then, during prophase, the microtubules nucleate, the chromosomes condense and are moved within the spindle.
As chromosome alignment proceeds from prometaphase to metaphase, microtubules and chromosomes reach a steady state — hence the narrowing of the corresponding shapes. The activity of microtubules dramatically increases early in anaphase, which helps to segregate the chromosomes, which are just 'passive passengers'.
By late anaphase, however, the decondensation of the chromosomes begins at the same time as the cortical acto-myosin contractile ring forms and contracts. Finally, cytokinesis itself occurs, requiring a small co-ordinated input from microtubules and the cell cortex. Testing the representation within the scientific community To see whether the scores could be recognized as having a relationship to the physical entities, activities and sub-processes of cell division, we sent the drawings to four senior scientists in the field, each with over 25 years of experience.
They were asked to describe their thoughts and feelings before being provided with a series of key words and, finally, explanations see Supplementary file 2 for comments from expert observers, and Supplementary file 3 for a detailed explanation of the drawings. With only the final score Figure 5 to look at, there was little to orient the experts.
However, two asked whether the drawing was a kymograph, with one suggesting that "the purple or yellow represents separating chromosomes or spindle poles". Providing the experts with initial keywords kymograph and energy potential was enough to elicit some very detailed responses that correctly identified the major elements of the pictures.
Moreover, once the mitosis scores containing the physical representations of the blue chromosomes were shown, a majority of the experts was able to discern the key and relate the different pictures to various types of mitosis Supplementary file 2. From these responses, we conclude that our new representation of cell division has value in conveying something of its dynamic nature, in relation to the key activities that contribute to it — at least to those familiar with the central concepts.
We therefore believe that it could be a useful communicator of knowledge about processes in a pedagogic context. The processual representation of cell division as a hypothesis generator One central aim of this project was to explore whether such dynamic representations could be collaboratively created with, and used by, scientists, drawing on their existing knowledge and intuition to generate new, testable hypotheses.
Reflections by the researchers on the final score not only suggested analogies with other life processes Supplementary file 4 but also brought to the fore a number of questions relating to the process of cell division.
On Drawing Trees And Nature
For example, what sub-cellular activities outside of microtubules, DNA and the cell cortex are not represented by the current score? How would the shape change when other elements, such as the endomembrane system, are incorporated? Does the narrowing of the shape during metaphase simply reflect missing activities, such as the microtubule poleward flux the continuous shortening and lengthening of the microtubules that does not affect the shape or size of the spindle, but that causes an energy flow from the centre of the spindle to the poles?
Or does the cell's energetic input into mitosis changes over time? If so, how close is the relationship between microtubule dynamics and mitochondria, the energy providers of the cell? How is this exchange in energy type accomplished?
Where are the proteins that do this, and when do they do this? These questions are new to the scientist involved in this project, even after 20 years of research and, as such, they provide a rich source of ideas for future experiments. Similarly, new questions are raised for artistic practice; for example, how should we imagine the repetition and variation of countless iterations of cell division?
1995 - Drawing Nature
How can we represent time within a 2D framework? And how do we draw cell division as a process within processes, intersecting and interconnecting? Conclusion: drawing as a process-centred epistemology Although the starting point for this project was an attempt to develop better representations of dynamic phenomena, a somewhat unexpected outcome has been the insight gained into the dynamic nature of the research process itself.
Drawing shifts the focus from the image as product an almost inevitable consequence of merely witnessing biological processes through various imaging devices to the production of the image as an integral part of research.
This activity, as described in preceding sections, can contribute to scientific insights and hypotheses.
We suspect that these benefits might be even greater with drawing properly integrated into primary research rather than just exploring the representation of already established results. The problem for the defenders of images is therefore to show how they could — like language — be internal, open to the mind's participation, part of the mind's own thought and workings" Podro, Furthermore, artists have long drawn inspiration from scientific images, but here we see the artist co-creating images with scientists and thereby influencing the way that both understand the phenomena with which they engage.There are usually no realistic details to these drawings.
Does the narrowing of the shape during metaphase simply reflect missing activities, such as the microtubule poleward flux the continuous shortening and lengthening of the microtubules that does not affect the shape or size of the spindle, but that causes an energy flow from the centre of the spindle to the poles?
See the links at the right of your screen. Cell division is one such process Duncan and Wakefield, Since the birth of the life sciences, these images were in a form of hand drawings, with great examples from da Vinci, Hooke, van Leeuwenhoek, Remak, Buffon, Bovery, Darwin, Huxley, Haeckel and Gray's Anatomy to name a few. The second session aimed to increase the group's perception of the processes within mitosis in order to generate a consensus and to move towards producing a connected space-time image of mitosis that the artist could then transform into art.
In the animated drawings below, you will notice that I initially drew the head too large.
- DRAWN TO LIFE BOOK
- CHRISTINE FEEHAN PDF
- WILLOWGLASS BOOK OF HOURS
- ADOBE ILLUSTRATOR CS5 TUTORIAL EBOOK
- ND BHATT PDF
- MICROSOFT FOREFRONT TMG 2010 EBOOK
- J SIGN PDF
- BOOK OF RA DELUXE FOR PC
- MY DAYS WITH BAASHA BOOK
- THE POWER OF SIX BOOK PDF
- ADVERTISING SECRETS OF THE WRITTEN WORD PDF
- DEAN KOONTZ BREATHLESS PDF
- FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING TERMS AND DEFINITIONS PDF