Lecture Notes (42); Assignments. Module Name, Download, Description, Download Size. Introduction, Introduction to Real Time Embedded Systems Part I , PDF, kb Introduction, Embedded Systems Components Part II, PDF, kb. ECE – Embedded Systems. Lecture 1. Vince Weaver Class notes will be posted on the website. • Will involve C coding, plus some. Engineering Class handwritten notes, exam notes, previous year questions, PDF free download.
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Embedded System Lecture Notes and Presentations. Prof. Phil Koopman, Carnegie Mellon University. This is a unified listing my lecture materials on a variety of. Lee & Seshia, Introduction to Embedded Systems, version least the present version is available free in the form of PDF file designed Languages and Programming (ICALP), Lecture Notes in Computer Science Embedded Systems Design. LECTURE NOTES. SYLLABUS: Unit-I. Introduction to Embedded Systems: Definition of Embedded System, Embedded Systems Vs.
Itdepends on the protocolSynchronous device clock bits Clock bits Either on a separate clockline or on data line such that the clockinformation is also embedded with thedata bits by an appropriate encoding ormodulation Generally not optional First characteristics of synchronouscommunication 1. Bytes or frames maintain a constant phasedifference, which means they are synchronous,i.
No permission ofsending either the bytes or the frames at therandom time intervals, this mode therefore doesnot provide for handshaking during thecommunication interval This facilitates fastdata communication at pre-fixed bps.
Second characteristics of synchronouscommunication 2. A clock ticking at a certain rate has always tobe there for transmitting serially the bits of allthe bytes or frames serially.
Mostly, theclock is not always implicit to thesynchronous data receiver. The transmittergenerally transmits the clock rate information Asynchronous Communication from SerialPorts or Devices Asynchronous CommunicationClocks of the receiver and transmitterindependent, unsynchronized, but ofsame frequency and variable phasedifferences between bytes or bits of twodata frames, which may not be sentwithin any prefixed time interval.
RSC communication between the UARTdevices Each successive byte can have variabletime-gap but have a minimum in-betweeninterval and no maximum limit for fullframe of many bytes Two characteristics of asynchronouscommunication 1.
Bytes or frames need not maintain a constantphase difference and are asynchronous, i. There is permission to sendeither bytes or frames at variable timeintervals Thisfacilitates in-betweenhandshaking between the serial transmitter portand serial receiver port 2.
After the response CTS, the data bitsare transmitted by modem from an instance t5 to thereceiver terminal. This explains why the bytes do not remainsynchronized during asynchronous transmission. Communication Protocols 1. Protocol A protocol is a standard adopted,which tells the way in which the bits ofa frame must be sent from a device orcontroller or port or processor toanother device or system [Even in personal communication wefollow a protocol we say Hello!
Thentalk and then say good bye! How the receiving device addresscommunicated so that only destineddevice activates and receives the bits? The counts increment on each pulseand store in a register, called countregister Output bits in a count register or at theoutput pins for the present counts. Evaluation of Time The counts multiplied by the intervalT give the time.
The present counts initial counts T interval gives the time intervalbetween two instances when presentcount bits are read and initial countswere read or set. Counter A device, which counts the input dueto the events at irregular or regularintervals.
The counts gives the number of inputevents or pulses since it was last read. At that instance a status bit or output pin alsosets in and an interrupt OCINT ofprocessor can occur for event of comparisonequality. Prescalar divides the input pulses as perthe programmed value of p. Real timeendlessly flows and never returnsback! Initiating an event after a preset delaytime. Delay is as per count valueloaded. Initiating an event or a pair of eventsor a chain of events after acomparison s with between the pre-settime s with counted value s.
Lecture #1, October 21, 2008
Apreset time is loaded in a CompareRegister. Capturing the count value at the timeron an event. The information of time instance of the event is thus stored atthe capture register. Finding the time interval between twoevents. Counts are captured at eachevent in capture register s and read.
The intervals are thus found out. Wait for a message from a queue ormailbox or semaphore for a preset timewhen using RTOS.
Watchdog timer. It resets the systemafter a defined time.
The timer acts as a counter if, inplace of clock inputs, the inputs aregiven to the timer for each instance tobe counted. A chain ofsoftware-timers interrupt and RTOSuses these interrupts to schedule thetasks. Amultitasking or multi-programmedoperating system presents the illusion thatmultiple tasks or programs are runningsimultaneously by switching betweenprograms very rapidly, for example, afterevery System clock In a system an hardware-timing device isprogrammed to tick at constant intervals.
At each tick there is an interrupt A chain of interrupts thus occur at periodicintervals. The interval is as per a presetcount value The interrupts are called system clockinterrupts, when used to control the schedulesand timings of the system Software timer SWT SWT is a timer based on the system clockinterrupts The interrupt functions as a clock input toan SWT.
Any number of SWTs can be made active ina list. Each SWT will set a status flag on itstimeout count-value reaching 0. Actions are analogous to that of ahardware timer. While there is physicallimit 1, 2 or 3 or 4 for the number ofhardware timers in a system, SWTscan be limited by the number ofinterrupt vectors provided by the user.
Originally developed at PhilipsSemiconductors Synchronous Serial Communication kbps up to 2 m and kbps forlonger distances Three I2C standards 1. Industrial kbps I2C, 2. Certain ICs support the protocol andcertain do not.
Open collector drivers at the masterneed a pull-up resistance of 2. It gives the input and gets outputbetween the physical and data link layers atthe host node. These units connect thehost node through the host interface circuit Three standards: 1.
If this bit is at '0' dominantstate it means, this packet is a requestfor the data from the device. The first bit is for the identifiersextension.
Sender after sensing '0' in the ACK slot, generallyretransmits the data frame. Second bit 'ACK delimiter' bit. It signals the endof ACK field. If the transmitting node does not receive anyacknowledgement of data frame within a specifiedtime slot, it should retransmit. It sends a token packet. The token consists of fields for type,direction, USB device address and deviceend-point number.
The device does the handshaking through ahandshake packet, indicating successful orunsuccessful transmission. Itis used when the connection is alreadyestablished and the data flow starts 2. Host configures each pipe with the databandwidth to be used, transfer service typeand buffer sizes.
Thesetwo numbers let allow the device tocarry out its auto-detection by its hostcomputer.
Memory needed does not depend on theprogrammer data type selection and ruledeclarations Not the compiler specific and libraryfunctionsspecific Device driver codes may need only a fewassembly instructions. These are historical lecture slides and might not represent my current opinions on various topics due to newly available research and experience.
Embedded System - ES Study Materials
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Challenges of embedded code; it only takes one line of bad code; problems with large scale production; your products live or die by their software; considering the worst case; designing for safety; security matters; industrial controls as targets; designing for security; testing isn't enough Fiat Chrysler jeep hack; Ford Mytouch update; Toyota UA code quality; Heartbleed; Nest thermostats; Honda UA recall; Samsung keyboard bug; hospital infusion pumps; LIFX smart lightbulbs; German steel mill hack; Ukraine power hack; SCADA attack data; Shodan; traffic light control vulnerability; hydroelectric plant vulnerability; zero-day shopping list.
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Embedded System Lecture Notes and Presentations
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Embedded System Lecture Notes and Presentations
Smoke testing, exploratory testing; methodical test coverage; types of testing; testing philosophy; coverage; testing resources. Explain various interfaces for external communication Explain important characteristics of an embedded system.
Briefly, discuss different application areas for Embedded systems. Discuss the guidelines for PCB layout. Compare Super loop based and OS based embedded firmware design. What is the interrupt sources and explain interrupt service mechanism?
Explain Task Scheduling including its scheduling Algorithms. Discuss fundamental issues in Hardware Software Co-Design.
Explain the various elements of an embedded system development environment. Explain Disassembler and Decompiler and their role in embedded firmware development. Discuss all the Laboratory tools for embedded system implementation and testing.
Embedded Systems: Peckol Wiley Hardcover: A Practical Approach Alexander G. Embedded System Design: Bakos Morgan Kaufmann Edition no.
Introduction to Embedded Systems:Synchronous serial output using shift register The processing element at the port peripheral sends the byte through a shift register at the port to where the microprocessor writes the byte. Functions Assigned to the Caches 1. Charge pump concept used in asystem of little power needs, forexamples, in the mouse or contact-lesssmart card. Demodulating and Receiving.
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