Introduction to Information Technology incorporates the major changes that have taken place in the field of information technology, including not only the latest. PDF Drive is your search engine for PDF files. As of today we have COBIT 5 - Information Technology - Information Security. 54 Pages·· Introduction to Information technology Try pdfdrive:hope to request a book. Previous; 1 · 2. download Introduction To Information Technology by V. Rajaraman PDF Online. As IT is a rapidly advancing technology, the main objective of this book is to.
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Technology (IT). Dheeraj Mehrotra Information is data processed for some purpose. • Information can only be database / address book. - DVD / CD Player . The Concept of Information Technology 8th Edition. This book written by Tariq Mahmood & Imran Saeed, reviwed by Tasleem Mustafa and. Information Technologies are systems of hardware and/or software that capture, downloading airline tecket; Ordering books; Electronic banking/ stock market.
We begin with the operating system. This may be divided into a kernel of absolutely indispensable programs and a shell of almost indispensable, so-called utility programs. The kernel or nucleus is also sometimes termed the monitor. If the keyboard mechanism were to transmit the A for only one microsecond, on the other hand, the computer might will be busy elsewhere and miss it altogether.
When the computer is ready to receive a new character, it checks the appropriate flag bit over and over, until it detects that it has been set. The flag is always open, so the transmit pulse need only be sent once by the keyboard; but the character continues to be sent until it is acknowledged by the computer.
Thus a keyboard character will neither be missed nor read repeatedly. In addition to the keyboard input already described, there will be short machine language programs for input from any other devices attached to the computer and corresponding programs for output to display screens, printers, and so on.
If, as is often the case, several users are connected to the computer, then the operating system must handle the tasks of Job-scheduling and Job accounting and billing, if this is appropriate , and the allocation of storage, in main and extended memory, and of other resources such as printers or communication lines , and the management of time-sharing as between several terminals.
Another task that is handled by the operating system is the management of user files, and their transfer between main memory and extended memory such as disk. Indeed, one sees frequent reference to disk operating systems, such is the importance of this function of the operating system.
Another function of the kernel is to provide protection and security to users and to itself, both from authorized users encroaching on forbidden territory and from unauthorized users attempting to use the computer.
Another very congenial aspect of this concept is that some operating systems conduct their memory management function in such a way that the user need make no distinction between main and extended memory; this is referred to as a virtual memory system.
The kernel program has to be able to display, move, modify, and search, at least the main memory, and to initiate execution at any given address, or activate any of the peripheral devices. We now turn to the utilities provided by most operating systems.
First, we have an assembler and perhaps also a disassembler, which translates a program written in machine language into the more intelligible assembly language; as well as a macroassembler, which allows the user to define his own macroinstructions in machine or assembly language , together with a selection Introduction 21 of translation programs, either interpreters or compilers, for the higher-level languages that the user wishes to employ.
The smaller microcomputers will provide an interpreter for some dialect of BASIC, since this a relatively simple language to learn and to interpret into machine or assembly language; beyond this, one must pay for additional languages. There will be facilities for linking or chaining programs together. While the kernel will contain the rudiments of a file-handling system to create, destroy, list, locate, and transfer files , there will also be utilities for further management of these.
Such programs will sort, find among other files , search in a given file, for information specified , transform, edit, and combine files. Indeed, a good program editor can enormously facilitate the rapid and painless creation and modification of files, which include both text and programs.
The line separating the kernel from the shell of utilities is purely conceptual and far from sharp. Similarly, the boundary of the entire operating system is far from definite. What is available beyond the essentials mentioned above will be called part of any decent system by some, part of a compiled language by others, and just applications software by still others, depending on their point of view.
Similarly, languages intended for scientific and engineering applications usually handle floating-point and multiple-precision arithmetic, though this may be provided even in computer hardware. The same applies to routines for computing, for example, sines, cosines, logarithms, etc. A data-base management system DBMS may be just a glorified file-handling utility; or may be an elaborate program, cross-indexed and relational, with its own language of special commands, for answering any conceivable question about a large amount of intricately structured data.
Similarly, a graphics package may simply allow one to produce passable graphs, histograms i.
The latter systems are a lot of fun to operate, and can be most helpful to draughtsmen, 22 A Handbook of Information Technology animators, film designers, and simulator-trainer designers; but they cost a bundle, and they require quite powerful computers to hold and run them.
Again, there are statistical packages of various degrees of sophistication, from a mean-variance-covariance calculator, to systems able to analyse very complex sets of data by elaborate techniques, using a whole statistical computer language. A table is presented on the video screen and each entry is allocated either a numerical value or a formula relating it to other entries.
When the data are sufficient, the resulting numbers are displayed. When an entry is changed, it and all entries depending on it are altered accordingly at once. This provides a representation of a given situation surpassed only by a graph in its impact, and a first-class planning aid. Margins may be set and the text right, left, or double justified, or set up in multi-column pages, with page numbering, indexing, and even the use of different sizes and styles of typeface, in the most sophisticated systems.
Here again, cost rises steeply, and one should download only what one will need. Beyond these programs, there lies an endless variety of unquestionable applications programs. There are programs for ballistics, boat design, analysis of molecular structure from x-ray diffraction data, tabulation of Bessel functions, simulation of naval battles and economic cycles, etc. Most of these are not in the market and only work on one machine; but there are very many programs available in the open market, produced or distributed by software houses, with various levels of efficiency, and sophistication.
Programming is a fascinating, intricate, rewarding, but unforgiving and at times infuriating occupation. We will encourage all of you who have the time to try it. The sense of achievement when you have a working program is great; perhaps because the process is addictive and consumes much more time than you would believe possible.
TWO What is Information? Information is one of those misunderstood concepts. Yet it is at the same time one of the most used. We go to the bus station to seek information from timetables. Banks, supermarkets, leisure centres, libraries and even the police ply us with more. Newspapers, television and the radio present us with their own ideas of what information should be. In many instances, however, we may not agree with their conclusions. We all understand and deal with this accordingly when extracting news from the media, for example.
Yet many of our organizations consider information to be something more. They see it as a vital resource, to be managed like any other valuable resource.
How it is used and disseminated through the available technology can determine how efficient, and indeed effective, an organization is. Information is important, we cannot operate without it. But more than this, we are discovering that our ability to process it by increasingly sophisticated technological means is fundamentally changing the way that employees perceive their organizational environment.
The consequences of this could be either to break down established functional controls or indeed to enhance them by becoming super-efficient. Much will depend upon the characteristics of the organization before implementation.
How, for instance, can we possibly design an adequate information system if we do not understand the nature of information? The answer to this lies, in part, with the conventional wisdom of the day. Managers, like everybody else, develop their views through exposure to established ideas.
The Concept of Information Technology (Tasleem Mustafa)
Thus, the way in which they understand information will influence the way in which they treat it. Anecdotal prescriptions abound as guidelines to the way presented for all who care to listen. These arise from a blanket of professional and academic 24 A Handbook of Information Technology thinking which surrounds the business environment and provides remedies for action.
We could categorize all these ideas into two bodies of thought, two paradigms. The first could be termed the resource-driven paradigm. This is because its central theme in understanding information is the continuity and consistency of the information itself. It is very much in vogue at present. The second body of thought is the perception-driven paradigm. Information is seen as an abstract concept, the product of individual perception.
It is a temporary phenomenon and as such belongs only to the receiver. The difference is not merely one of academic debate. Managements adopting one or the other can affect the design of their organizations. If information is considered to be a resource then resulting systems are usually more centrally controlled, the assumption being that all information is corporate property. Whereas information considered to be personally owned is seen as being outside the formal structure. Within the framework of this paradigm the view of information is coloured by its use as a resource.
Like any other resource it can be tapped at any time with the certainty of achieving a predictable value from it. There are a range of propositions available which seeks to explain information.
Each proposition has a consequence for organizational design. Listed below are those major themes and what their implications might be on business. Herbert A. Simon took the view that information, along with energy, constitute the two basic currencies of our society.
We need energy to breathe, to move, to think, to live. But this alone is not enough. We need to know when to breathe, when to move and how to think. Information provides us with that knowledge. To adopt this perspective is to interpret information as an independent entity. It is all about us waiting to be picked up and used. There may be minor variations in its interpretation by different individuals, but consistency can be easily achieved through better training. Specific sets of information, such as finance information, are given a unique value by organizations which are usually based upon departmental rather than individual needs.
Particular information is thus attached to particular departments. This allows information to be generally accessible because perceptions of it are bound by the formal departmental framework.
Information is then tied into that framework and cannot be used legitimately within any other context, thus guarding its consistency. What is excluded, therefore, is an important role for the individual receiver. This is not to suggest that information cannot be perceived by individuals. However, information can be received automatically without an individual having to understand it.
Introduction to Information Technology
For example, through training an employee could process production statistics without knowing what they mean. In this case it is the functional process through its formal procedure that is acting as the receiver rather than the individual. An accounting process, for instance, responds to specific inputs without anyone having to understand them. A motor car responds to certain information transmitted through mechanisms such as the throttle, steering wheel or brake.
Both of these examples are designed to act as receivers to specific information. By implication, information can be transmitted to any receiver that logs into the particular transmission.
In the same way as a radio picks up a station when it is switched on, the right form will pick up the right information. And like radio waves, information is omnipresent, only needing the correct tuning.
Such a view allows information the continuity and consistency required to be regarded as a resource. It also allows a further proposition. The design of any formal information system must assume that information does not change during transmission. It can, however, be transformed from data or other information sets before transmission.
Within such a framework it is the transmitting functions departments, processes, etc. The information receiving functions also departments, processes, etc. An information network between functions Each function, however, can be both transmitter and receiver of information, and together with other functions will form part of an integrated network Figure 1.
The functions are tied by their simultaneous roles as information receivers and transmitters, thereby being prevented as much as possible from deviancy in their information usage. Consequently, business organizations are driven by those functions which transmit information. The higher the value that a particular set of information is given, the more important will be its relating transmitter function. For 26 A Handbook of Information Technology example, the finance department could both transmit and receive information.
Indeed, each job function within that department could also do the same. A cost clerk, for instance, receives information from the factory floor which he then processes into other information and transmits to some other source, perhaps management. The value of the information he processes will depend upon the utility his organization has placed upon it.
If the utility is high, then the prestige attached to the transmitting function will also be high irrespective of job complexity. In the same way, if a department has a great number of important information transmitters within its control, then it too will be prestigious and possess influence. Perception-driven Paradigm The perception-driven paradigm does not consider information to be a resource.
Individuals or groups are seen to own their information. What belongs to the organization are the data sets, the facts and figures specific to certain functions. For instance, data on how an organization is performing in its market quite obviously belong to that firm. Management can control this indirectly through training, but they cannot directly control the thought processes which turns data into information.
Once again, there is a collection of propositions or ideas about information which formulate a general approach. Adherence to this paradigm, as in the previous paradigm, may not necessarily be by conviction but rather by default because people not treating information as a resource automatically form part of this group. However, there are others who are members by conviction. Information is said to be receiver-dependent, in that, any set of information can be considered to be information only if it is recognised as having value by a particular individual.
Thus, a river flooding may be information to someone who lives on its banks but of no consequence to someone living several miles away. It would be difficult, therefore, to understand information as a group or organizations property since its determination is subjective.
Management teams have implemented computer technology and in so doing also developed their information sets into a resource. Information is no longer seen as a resource; indeed its treatment as such is often seen as the culprit and not the technology itself. Computer personnel, for example, have long known of the distinction. Information is seen by them as processed data.
The two are interrelated, data being the input to a process, and information the output. In the same way that an output of one system can form the input of another, information from one system can form the data of another.
This is consistent with treating information as a resource.
Perceptually-conceived information on the other hand is not the consequence of a formalized process. Data are a factor, but then so are other aspects such as individual traits, culture, structure and political processes.
The relationship between data and information is, therefore, not so strong. This contradicts the objectives implied by the creation of management information systems and data processing. The former allows the individual access to established information, whilst the latter converts data into information. Since the production of information cannot be formalized there is no point in trying to achieve it. Systems should, therefore, be designed to produce the most accurate and readable data in order to enhance easy conversion into information.
When Ligomenides describes information as a fundamental force, he should be referring to data. Levitan, on the other hand, is correct in claiming information to be dynamic and continuously evolving. The logic of these two views can be seen when data and information are differentiated. It is only data which is time-independent, and therefore unchanging and static— a fundamental force. By this we mean that data retains a constant empirical value: a fact is a fact and cannot be altered. Information, on the other hand, can be altered and changed.
It is time-dependent and thus its value can alter from one moment to the next. It is, indeed, time and utility which transform data into information. If at a particular time a set of data is useful to an individual then it can be described as information.
Equally, at another time the same set of data may not have utility and therefore not be information. The data themselves have not changed in any way, remaining always constant. Information is in reality the consequence of a complex psychological process which transforms perceived data, into usable thought inputs.
It is, therefore, data which the individual receives from the environment, the brain which transforms these data into information. No formal system can directly pre-empt this stage; thus no formal system can transform data into information. Data can be transformed into different data, transmitted and received.
For example, production data submitted to the cost department and processed 28 A Handbook of Information Technology into second generation costed production data, which are in turn submitted to the financial director. Information is transformed, in part, from data; it can only be received and never transmitted. The financial director may attach value to costed production data and thus receive it as information. There cannot be information systems because information is so transient.
At another time that perception may be different. Information systems cannot work in this way.
Their assumption must be that information is not transient but consistent. Quite obviously information systems do exist in one form or another.
Reference Manual on Scientific Evidence: Third Edition
They may not be what they claim to be but they are nevertheless working. Is it worth arguing the difference? The answer to that lies within ourselves. Our actions and behaviour, and consequently our organizations, are governed by our perceptions.
If, therefore, we understand information to be permanent rather than transient then how we organize ourselves will be coloured by that.
We will design systems which use information as a resource and expect it to be totally consistent. Structural Implications The difference between these two paradigms may seem subtle, and in terms of information usage it may well be. However, NBS research indicates that the effects upon organizational design can be major. Structural characteristics consequent upon individually-owned information, for instance, can adopt two extremes.
On the one hand they can be organic and informal adhocracies whereby all members are seen as contributing equally, each possessing a particular range of techniques to interpret data, whilst at the other extreme there are formal and mechanistic organizations bureaucracies.
The rigidities of structure stifle any use of information as a resource, so by default such processes are left to the individual. These contrast with the resource-driven paradigm in which the structural characteristics of organizations are seen to be centrally orientated, with spheres of influence at the periphery, their importance dependent upon the perceived value of particular sets of information.
Wider Implications of Information The development of an organization oriented toward the resource-driven concept of information is well known, and many large firms are aligned in that direction.
A sophisticated network is established, more than likely computerized, accessing and distributing information. Particular attention is paid to ensuring standardization of information sets.
For example, a piece of What is Information? These organizations treat all information as their property, attaching to it a value like any other asset. This denies the employee any sense of ownership and tends to detach them from the work process with consequential inefficiencies evolving.
It is asserted, that a motivated staff is a contented and efficient staff. One important way to motivate is to give the individual responsibility within their job.
Such responsibility is manifest in how much ability a person will be given to determine the information need of their particular function. To standardize information in the way that many corporate systems do, takes away that fundamental element of responsibility. Levitan, on the other hand, would claim this to be an inevitable consequence of increasingly sophisticated corporate structures.
In addition, Karen Levitan and others imply that information which is not used as a resource is inferior. On the contrary, one could argue that giving the individual ownership could result in a greater entrepreneurial drive. Standardization is the killer of innovation.
It is difficult to conceive of any substantial organization, however, where such a degree of individuality could be tolerated. Their size demands a need for cohesion through standardized practice. Therefore it is only in the smaller establishments where such freedom would work. Large organizations which do not treat their information as a resource still exist.
Their mechanisms of control, however, are not informal or organic. Indeed, the realities are the converse. Individuality is stifled by greater control, rather than less. Classic examples of such organizations are to be found within the civil service or large quasi-government institutions such as the post office. It has been suggested that there is a relationship between the way in which a firm uses its information and its structure.
A matrix can be established differentiating organizations in terms of how they treat their information and the consequential structural characteristics. If, for example, information is plotted against size another important contingent of organization four major structural types could be identified.
Each is the outcome of the way a particular firm uses its information. On the vertical axis of the matrix are the two extremes of information. Integrated Circuits 1. Microprocessors 1.
Introduction to Information Technology/Introduction
Artificial Intelligence 1. Computer Organization and Architecture 2. Computer Memory and Storage 3. Input Output Media 4. Operating System 5. Definition 5. Microsoft Windows XP 6.
Overview of Microsoft Windows 7 7. Information Technology Basics 8. Multimedia Essentials 9. Definition 9. Computer Programming and Languages Machine Language Assembly Language High-level Language Very High-level Languages Computer Software Definition Introduction to Microsoft Office Microsoft Office Word A computer without software is a helpless set-of circuits, and the expertise required to create the basic software that will bring the machine to useful life is comparable to that required to design the machine itself.
Increasingly in large computers, and almost universally in small ones, the main input is from the keyboard of a terminal. Computer Programming and Languages Output from the computer can similarly follow the reverse process, yielding visible or audible results, or the control of mechanical or electrical equipment.
Often, they permit the exchange of messages computer mail and the pooling of data distributed data-base. You may not use your own calculator.
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